Teaching Swimming And Water Safety Pdf
File Name: teaching swimming and water safety .zip
- Safety Around Water
- American Red Cross Swimming and Water Safety Handbook
- Swim instructor beliefs about toddler and preschool swimming and water safety education.
Safety Around Water
People with autism are approximately twice as likely to die from drowning than members of the general population.
Drowning can take place in quite small bodies of water. Therefore, acquiring good water safety skills is of the utmost importance.
A systematic review of research into effective behavioural interventions for water safety and swim skills was conducted. In total, 11 studies were identified. Findings suggest that behaviourally based interventions can improve a range of water safety and swim skills in individuals with autism. The prevalence of autism is on the rise i.
While the reasons for this increase are still widely debated Waterhouse , it is apparent that the overall life expectancy of people with autism is lower than the general population Johnston ; Young et al. In fact, children and adults with autism are approximately twice as likely to die from drowning as members of the general population Schendel et al. Preventative safety skills need to occur before the dangerous situations in order to avoid harm Clees and Gast , for example, an important water safety skill would be to walk and not run near a swimming pool.
Reactionary safety behaviours occur as a response to a dangerous situation to which the person is exposed Clees and Gast Reactionary safety behaviours usually are more reflexive in nature, for example, a child holding their breath while submerged underwater. In the context of swimming and water safety, a mixture of both preventative and reactionary skills is necessary. Preventative water safety skills include appropriate entering and exiting of the pool, as well as the proper use of flotation devices.
Reactionary water safety skills include being able to surface after submersion or knowing how to reach the hand rail the side of the pool. Most swim skills are also safety skills, including re-emerging from the water after submersion, floating on the water and being able to engage in various swim strokes that allow the person to remain above water or reach safety. Study designs : Group studies and single case studies.
Purely qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 12 papers were identified initially. All the titles and abstracts of these papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded due to duplication and one paper Dulcy was excluded because the journal in which it was published National Aquatics Journal had been decommissioned and could not be located, despite considerable efforts including interlibrary loan requests from the British Library.
Three studies were rejected as they did not address swim skills, and a further three studies were excluded because they focused on other outcomes, including social and communication interactions and physical fitness. A total of 15 papers remained. Full-text analysis revealed that 4 studies did not use behavioural methods to teach swim skills, they used sensory integration approaches and physical therapy.
Therefore, these papers were excluded. The remaining, 11 papers were included in the final review see Fig. The earliest study with a focus on water safety and swim skills in autism that explicitly based their intervention on applied behaviour analysis was Yilmaz, Yanardag, Birkan, and Bumin Yilmaz et al. The target behaviours were chosen with reference to the Halliwick Method Martin which divides key skills into four group phases: 1 adjustment to water, 2 rotations, 3 control of movement in water and 4 movement in water.
This study focussed on phase 1 skills. The Aquatic Orientation Checklist Killian et al. The checklist includes four observable behaviours:. Objection : Avoidance of task by absolute non-compliance, tantrum, or active resistance i. Baseline assessment showed that five out of six behaviours occurred at the level of b voluntary; in other words, the child engaged in the behaviours following verbal directions of the instructor; only behaviour 4 sitting or attaining a horizontal position in the water functioned at the level of c demonstration and required prompting.
Specific methods of teaching were not detailed in the paper. Post-intervention assessment showed that the child engaged in all six target behaviours at level a spontaneous , in other words, the child engaged in these behaviours prior to the verbal directions of the instructor.
Additionally, a reduction in stereotypic behaviours, such as rocking, spinning and delayed echolalia, was reported. Whilst this paper added to the growing body of evidence that individuals with autism can benefit from swimming and physical exercise Aleksandrovic et al.
The instruction programme targeted these skills in hierarchical order from 1 through to 5. Further details of instructional methods were not provided.
Skill gains were reported for all four participants across individual repertoires, particularly in 4 stroke skills , although stroke topographies were idiosyncratic, such that three of the participants developed hybrid front crawl strokes. Social validity was not mentioned specifically but positive family outcomes were implied. Yilmaz, Konukman, Birkan, and Yanardag Yilmaz et al. The boys all attended mainstream school.
The sessions were conducted on a basis. Prior to training, baseline probes were taken during a minimum of three sessions. Aquatic play skills were then taught using either 0-s or 4-s constant time delay intervals. Responses were coded into six possible categories: 1 correct response, 2 anticipations, 3 errors, 4 non-wait, 5 wait and 6 no response. All types of correct responses, correct anticipations and correct waits resulted in descriptive verbal praise. All incorrect responses were ignored and the task direction for the next step was provided.
All subjects met criteria after the implementation of a 4-s constant time delay, suggesting that the procedure was effective for teaching aquatic play skills to these children.
In a later study, Yilmaz et al. They were continent, had no open wounds on their bodies and were able to wear both, swimming costume and cap, without removing these prematurely.
Their aquatic skills included jumping, waiting, sitting, kicking and splashing in the water. In another multiple baseline across behaviour study, also employing the Halliwick framework, Yilmaz et al. Participants were the same three boys with autism who participated in the Yilmaz et al. All three boys met the pre-requisite conditions for the Halliwick Method.
They were able to. All sessions were conducted on a basis, using research assistants. Probes were taken prior to the training baseline and following acquisition of target behaviours, for a minimum of three probe sessions maintenance and generalisation. All three participants required nine training sessions to reach criterion, i. In addition, these skills were maintained during 1-, 2- and 4-week generalisation phases.
A multiple probe design also was used by Rogers et al. The study was conducted by a graduate student who was trained as life guards. Three behaviours were targeted:. An intricate recording system was devised using different coloured hairbands worn on the wrists of the instructor and moved into sequence depending on correct or incorrect responses. The instructor then transferred these raw data onto a data collection sheet after the session was completed.
All three participants reached the mastery criterion in 6—8 sessions. The boys attended mainstream school and were able to follow instructions. None of the boys had a co-occurring intellectual disability and their current therapy or activity programmes remained unchanged.
Each participant was assessed on three occasions:. Four WESP, trained research assistants took part in the study and each assistant was paired with the same two students across all sessions. Teachers were blinded to group membership of each participants.
Results indicated that social behaviours and aquatic skills improved for both groups during the WESP intervention. The intervention was conducted during an after-school aquatic programme provided to children with autism.
Each child with autism took part in 16 sessions. There were three instructional groups:. Peer and sibling assistants received four training sessions introducing the rules and explaining their roles, prompting techniques and social interactions.
While the main focus of this study was the number of interactions that occurred between the individuals with autism and the peer or sibling assistants, outcomes showed that aquatic skills increased in all participants. A multiple probe design was used to assess the effectiveness of video prompting on the acquisition of aquatic play skills by Yanardag et al.
Three children with autism 1 female and 2 male met all the inclusion criteria. The aquatic sessions were conducted by three PhD-level researchers and three exercise specialists. A video prompt was displayed on a laptop that was positioned at the side of the pool and showed each step in the task analysis of the required skill. This was shown to the participant prior to them being asked to perform the corresponding skill.
Once each step had been mastered, instruction on the next step began. Teaching occurred on a basis. All three participants reached mastery criteria for all three target behaviours in 36 trials. Incorrect responding occurred between 8. Jull and Mirenda used a modified, non-concurrent multiple baseline design to assess the impact of behavioural skills training BST on the ability of recreation centre staff to use discrete trials and visual activity schedules to teach swimming skills to children with autism in public swim settings.
The individuals were verbal and seven of them had received previous swim tuition, one of whom had advanced swimming skills. The individuals had no fear or water, no severe problem behaviour and were able to tolerate physical prompting. None of the individuals had previously met the instructor in this study. Five of the individuals received tuition and three of them took part in group sessions. Data were collected on four dependent variables:. Levy et al. All three individuals had shown resistance to underwater submersion in previous swimming lessons.
The behavioural treatment package consisted of shaping and prompting procedures that were conducted in min sessions, once a week over the course of a year. Sessions were conducted by a swim instructor who was also a graduate in ABA. Mastery was achieved for all three participants in 18—27 sessions. The 11 studies that met all inclusion criteria were analysed across the following categories: 1 participant characteristics, 2 skills taught, 3 methods used i.
American Red Cross Swimming and Water Safety Handbook
Create an Account - Increase your productivity, customize your experience, and engage in information you care about. There are no refunds once registered for a course. Free classes are available to anyone working exclusively for the City of Columbus. Please contact the Aquatic Center. View Online Registration to see the list of available classes.
Each year, the American Red Cross teaches lifesaving skills to more than 16 million people. But we. Reaching this many people is only possible through the help of people like you—. An American Red Cross instructor is a member of a select group of trained and authorized individuals. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any. American Red Cross certificates may be issued upon successful completion of a training program, which uses this.
A child or weak swimmer can drown in the time it takes to reply to a text, check a fishing line, or apply sunscreen. Teaching children how to swim and be safe in and around water is one of the most important life skills parents can help their children learn. It not only saves lives; it builds confidence. We've put together some tips to keep kids and families safe around water year-round. Every day, there are nearly 10 accidental drownings in the U. The YMCA of Greater Seattle is committed to removing barriers that limit all people from developing their full potential, and that includes being safe around water. We offer Safety Around Water classes and swim lessons to help achieve this goal.
Swim instructor beliefs about toddler and preschool swimming and water safety education.
School Swimming and water safety toolkit. Parent Engagement Parent Survey pdf More. School swimming — what next? Important water safety information for parents - Poster More. Important water safety information for parents - Flyer More.
Through this approach, advanced swimmers flow more easily to higher levels while swimmers who need more instruction can learn at their own pace - resulting in more confident swimmers who stick with lessons and develop a love for swimming that can last a lifetime. This category focuses on developing swim readiness skills through fun and confidence-building experiences. Parents also learn how to supervise children in the water, how to prevent accidents and how to plan for emergencies. Swimmers develop a high level of comfort in the water by practicing safe water habits, engaging in underwater exploration, and learning how to swim to safety and exit if they fall into a body of water. Having mastered the fundamentals, students learn additional water safety skills and build stroke technique, developing skills that prevent chronic disease, increase social-emotional and cognitive well-being and foster a lifetime of physical activity.
People with autism are approximately twice as likely to die from drowning than members of the general population. Drowning can take place in quite small bodies of water. Therefore, acquiring good water safety skills is of the utmost importance. A systematic review of research into effective behavioural interventions for water safety and swim skills was conducted.
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Она бросилась к лестнице и начала подниматься к кабинету Стратмора. За ее спиной ТРАНСТЕКСТ издал предсмертный оглушающий стон. Когда распался последний силиконовый чип, громадная раскаленная лава вырвалась наружу, пробив верхнюю крышку и выбросив на двадцать метров вверх тучу керамических осколков, и в то же мгновение насыщенный кислородом воздух шифровалки втянуло в образовавшийся вакуум.
Она точно знала, что на такой пароль уходит меньше десяти минут.
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В АНБ было только одно помещение, еще более засекреченное, чем шифровалка, и Сьюзан поняла, что сейчас она окажется в святая святых агентства. ГЛАВА 109 Командный центр главного банка данных АНБ более всего напоминал Центр управления полетами НАСА в миниатюре. Десяток компьютерных терминалов располагались напротив видеоэкрана, занимавшего всю дальнюю стену площадью девять на двенадцать метров.
Чистота заключена в буквальном значении имени - Капля Росы. В ушах зазвучал голос старого канадца. Капля Росы. Очевидно, она перевела свое имя на единственный язык, равно доступный ей и ее клиенту, - английский.
Быстрее. Хейл выслушал все это, не сдвинувшись с места и не веря своим ушам. Хватка на горле Сьюзан слегка ослабла.
Программное обеспечение ТРАНСТЕКСТА по раскрытию кодов должно храниться в Федеральной резервной системе и министерстве юстиции. Это должно было гарантировать, что АНБ не сможет перехватывать частную переписку законопослушных граждан во всем мире. Однако когда настало время загрузки программного обеспечения, персоналу, работавшему с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ, объявили, что планы изменились. В связи с чрезвычайной обстановкой, в которой обычно осуществляется антитеррористическая деятельность АНБ, ТРАНСТЕКСТ станет независимым инструментом дешифровки, использование которого будет регулироваться исключительно самим АНБ.
Втроем, - поправила Сьюзан. - Коммандер Стратмор у. Советую исчезнуть, пока он тебя не засек. Хейл пожал плечами: - Зато он не имеет ничего против твоего присутствия.