Audio And Video Engineering Pdf
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- Audio and Video Engineering - AVE Study Materials
- Journal of the Audio Engineering Society
The Journal of the Audio Engineering Society — the official publication of the AES — is the only peer-reviewed journal devoted exclusively to audio technology. Published 10 times each year, it is available to all AES members and subscribers.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying , playback, broadcasting , and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary in display resolution , aspect ratio , refresh rate , color capabilities and other qualities. Analog and digital variants exist and can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast , magnetic tape , optical discs , computer files , and network streaming.
Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube CRT television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented.
Video was originally exclusively a live technology. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder VTR.
In the first VTR captured live images from television cameras by writing the camera's electrical signal onto magnetic videotape. The use of digital techniques in video created digital video. It could not initially compete with analog video, due to early digital uncompressed video requiring impractically high bitrates.
Practical digital video was made possible with discrete cosine transform DCT coding,  a lossy compression process developed in the early s. Digital video was later capable of higher quality and, eventually, much lower cost than earlier analog technology.
After the invention of the DVD in , and later the Blu-ray Disc in , sales of videotape and recording equipment plummeted. Advances in computer technology allows even inexpensive personal computers and smartphones to capture, store, edit and transmit digital video, further reducing the cost of video production , allowing program-makers and broadcasters to move to tapeless production.
The advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. As of [update] , with the increasing use of high-resolution video cameras with improved dynamic range and color gamuts , and high-dynamic-range digital intermediate data formats with improved color depth , modern digital video technology is converging with digital film technology.
The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of a moving image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be interlaced or progressive.
In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence. When displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Interlacing was invented as a way to reduce flicker in early mechanical and CRT video displays without increasing the number of complete frames per second.
Interlacing retains detail while requiring lower bandwidth compared to progressive scanning. In interlaced video, the horizontal scan lines of each complete frame are treated as if numbered consecutively, and captured as two fields : an odd field upper field consisting of the odd-numbered lines and an even field lower field consisting of the even-numbered lines. Analog display devices reproduce each frame, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned.
When the image capture device acquires the fields one at a time, rather than dividing up a complete frame after it is captured, the frame rate for motion is effectively doubled as well, resulting in smoother, more lifelike reproduction of rapidly moving parts of the image when viewed on an interlaced CRT display. Abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is often described as i50 , where indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing, and 50 indicates 50 fields half-frames per second.
When displaying a natively interlaced signal on a progressive scan device, overall spatial resolution is degraded by simple line doubling —artifacts such as flickering or "comb" effects in moving parts of the image which appear unless special signal processing eliminates them.
A procedure known as deinterlacing can optimize the display of an interlaced video signal from an analog, DVD or satellite source on a progressive scan device such as an LCD television , digital video projector or plasma panel.
Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material. Aspect ratio describes the proportional relationship between the width and height of video screens and video picture elements.
All popular video formats are rectangular , and so can be described by a ratio between width and height. The ratio width to height for a traditional television screen is , or about 1.
High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of , or about 1. Pixels on computer monitors are usually square, but pixels used in digital video often have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR digital video standard, and the corresponding anamorphic widescreen formats.
The by pixel raster uses thin pixels on a aspect ratio display and fat pixels on a display. The popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical video. The color model the video color representation and maps encoded color values to visible colors reproduced by the system.
The number of distinct colors a pixel can represent depends on color depth expressed in the number of bits per pixel. A common way to reduce the amount of data required in digital video is by chroma subsampling e. Because the human eye is less sensitive to details in color than brightness, the luminance data for all pixels is maintained, while the chrominance data is averaged for a number of pixels in a block and that same value is used for all of them.
This process does not reduce the number of possible color values that can be displayed, but it reduces the number of distinct points at which the color changes. Video quality can be measured with formal metrics like Peak signal-to-noise ratio PSNR or through subjective video quality assessment using expert observation. In DSIS, each expert views an unimpaired reference video followed by an impaired version of the same video. The expert then rates the impaired video using a scale ranging from "impairments are imperceptible" to "impairments are very annoying".
Uncompressed video delivers maximum quality, but with a very high data rate. A variety of methods are used to compress video streams, with the most effective ones using a group of pictures GOP to reduce spatial and temporal redundancy.
Broadly speaking, spatial redundancy is reduced by registering differences between parts of a single frame; this task is known as intraframe compression and is closely related to image compression. Likewise, temporal redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames; this task is known as interframe compression , including motion compensation and other techniques.
Stereoscopic video for 3d film and other applications can be displayed using several different methods:. Different layers of video transmission and storage each provide their own set of formats to choose from. For transmission, there is a physical connector and signal protocol see List of video connectors. A given physical link can carry certain display standards that specify a particular refresh rate, display resolution , and color space.
Many analog and digital recording formats are in use, and digital video clips can also be stored on a computer file system as files, which have their own formats. In addition to the physical format used by the data storage device or transmission medium, the stream of ones and zeros that is sent must be in a particular digital video coding format , of which a number are available see List of video coding formats. Analog video is a video signal represented by one or more analog signals.
Analog color video signals include luminance , brightness Y and chrominance C. Analog video may be carried in separate channels, as in two channel S-Video YC and multi-channel component video formats. Analog video is used in both consumer and professional television production applications. Composite video single channel RCA. Serial digital interface SDI. Video can be transmitted or transported in a variety of ways including wireless terrestrial television as an analog or digital signal, coaxial cable in a closed circuit system as an analog signal.
Broadcast or studio cameras use a single or dual coaxial cable system using serial digital interface SDI. See List of video connectors for information about physical connectors and related signal standards. Digital television broadcasts use the MPEG-2 and other video coding formats and include:. Analog television broadcast standards include:.
An analog video format consists of more information than the visible content of the frame. Preceding and following the image are lines and pixels containing metadata and synchronization information. This surrounding margin is known as a blanking interval or blanking region ; the horizontal and vertical front porch and back porch are the building blocks of the blanking interval. Computer display standards specify a combination of aspect ratio, display size, display resolution, color depth, and refresh rate.
A list of common resolutions is available. Early television was almost exclusively a live medium with some programs recorded to film for distribution of historical purposes using Kinescope. The analog video tape recorder was commercially introduced in In approximate chronological order. All formats listed were sold to and used by broadcasters, video producers or consumers; or were important historically VERA. Optical storage mediums offered an alternative, especially in consumer applications, to bulky tape formats.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Electronic moving image. This article is about the storage and reproduction medium. For their content and production, see Film and Footage. For other uses, see Video disambiguation. For the use of video in Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Creation and usage of media files.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Play media. See also: History of television. See also: Analog television and Videotape. Main article: Digital video. See also: Digital television and Video coding format. Main article: Video compression. S-Video 2-channel YC. Component video 3-channel RGB. Further information: Display technology , List of common resolutions , and Broadcast television systems.
See also: Video codec and List of codecs. Index of video-related articles Sound recording and reproduction Video editing Videography. Cable television Color television Telecine Timecode. Archived from the original on Retrieved Roll VTR".
Audio and Video Engineering - AVE Study Materials
Audiovisual AV is electronic media possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations,  films , television programs , corporate conferencing, church services, and live theater productions. Audiovisual service providers frequently offer web streaming, video conferencing, and live broadcast services. Computer-based audiovisual equipment is often used in education, with many schools and universities installing projection equipment and using interactive whiteboard technology. Generally, residential audiovisual encompasses in-ceiling speakers, flat panel TVs, projectors, and projector screens. This could include lighting, blinds, cinema rooms, etc.
CONTENT: AUDIO VIDEO ENGINEERING. CHAPTER 1: 1. CHAPTER 2: 2. CHAPTER 3: 3. CHAPTER 4: Hi Fi Audio Amplifier. Slide no: 6. CD player.
Journal of the Audio Engineering Society
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying , playback, broadcasting , and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary in display resolution , aspect ratio , refresh rate , color capabilities and other qualities. Analog and digital variants exist and can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast , magnetic tape , optical discs , computer files , and network streaming. Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube CRT television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Video was originally exclusively a live technology.
Introduction to sound pdf.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Fischer Published Engineering. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience.
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The journal is an interdisciplinary journal presenting the theory and practice of signal, image and video processing. It aims at:. It features original research work, review and tutorial papers and accounts of practical developments.
TV alignment and fault finding with Wobbuloscope and TV pattern generation, field strength meter.