# History Of Indian Mathematicians And Their Contributions Pdf

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- Indian mathematics
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- List of Famous Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India

Jump to navigation. India has had a long legacy of extraordinary teachers and scholars who had immense knowledge about mathematics and astronomy. From discovering the concept of zero to calculating the correct days in a year, mathematicians in India have been at the forefront of challenging the norms as well as a thirst for knowledge.

## Indian mathematics

Srinivasa Ramanujan was a brilliant mathematician who gets credited even today for his contributions in the field of mathematics. Born in the year in Tamil Nadu, Ramanujan was an exceptionally brilliant child who would outshine other children of his age in solving equations.

The circumstances of his family were not good and they lived in poverty for most part of their lives, thereby not giving the young Ramanujan an opportunity to pursue his passion-mathematics-due to lack of proper resources.

However the laborious Ramanujan found his inspiration in the book 'Synopsis of elementary results in pure mathematics' by George S. A brilliant mathematician, Srinivasa Ramanujan is credited today for his contributions in the field of mathematics. The year was the turning point in the struggling life the genius mathematician. He was invited to Cambridge by the very eminent mathematician, G. Hardy after going through Ramanujan's papers was perplexed by the geniousness of his work.

While some equations had already been discovered, the remainder were entirely new for even G. He was amazed at Ramanujan's insight into algebraical formulae, transformations of infinite series, etc. In the year , he was awarded his Ph.

The story of this mathematical genius is truly inspiring as Ramanujan had to practice in circumstances that didn't even let him afford enough papers to practice the equations. A slate and chalk were his most trusted aids. At a very young age, Ramanuj bid goodbye to the world in the year due to the dreaded disease, Tuberculosis.

The book was the first text that treated zero as a number and gave references for using it in calculations. Born in the state of Rajasthan, most of his works were in the Sanskrit language, which was the prominent language then. Known also as Bhillamalacarya, the genius mathematician made immense contribution in the field of Arithmetic by not only explaining how to calculate cube and the cube-root of an integer but also providing rules for computation of square and square root.

Interestingly, previously calculations such as entailed the answer called meaningless. Brahmagupta gave such calculations a meaning by inventing the concept of negative numbers. The other contributions of the accomplished mathematician were the Brahmagupta's Formula and Brahmagupta's Theorem. The former provided a formula for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral while the latter related to the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral.

Bhaskara I c. Born in Maharashtra,. Bhaskara's commentary Aryabhatiyabhasya, written in CE, is the oldest known work, in Sanskrit language, on mathematics and astronomy.

He was a follower of Aryabhat. The latter book, divided into eight chapters, dwells into mathematical astronomy. The book is also credited to have given the approximation formula for sin x. The book also discusses about longitudes of the planets, conjunctions of the planets with each other and with bright stars, eclipses of the sun and the moon, risings and settings, and the lunar crescent.

He is called Bhaskara I to distinguish from another 12th century mathematician of the same name. However Bhaskara I along with Brahmagupta is considered to be the greatest ancient Indian mathematicians of all time.

Shakuntala Devi was a remarkable lady known for superfast calculations, something that had earned her the title of 'human computer'. Born in Bangalore in the year , Shakuntala's talent was first observed by her father when he was training her for remembering numbers on the card for the circuses.

Shakuntala's father used to work in a circus. Soon after the father - daughter duo were traveling to do street shows based on a young Shakuntala's calculations' talent. Shakuntala had by the end of year moved to London thereby traveling across the world doing shows.

After all the young prodigy was known to solve the most complex equations within seconds. So much so that the professor of psychology at California University, Arthur Jensen, had called her to the university in the year to study her exceptional capabilities. The world was stunned with Shakuntala Devi's talent. She gave the correct answer — 18,,,,,,,, in just 28 seconds.

Shakuntala Devi was also a successful astrologer and author of several books on the subject. She also wrote texts on mathematics for children and puzzles.

The immensely gifted mathematician bid her adieu to the world in year Famously also called Aryabhata I CE or Aryabhata The Elder, in order to distinguish him from another tenth century mathematician of the same name, Aryabhata flourished in Patliputra during Gupta dynasty. Aryabhata was a Scientist, Mathematician as well as an Astronomer. This is so because not only had he discovered that the Earth is spherical, which revolves around the Sun but also that the number of days in a year is In Ganita, Aryabhata has named the first 10 decimal places and given algorithms for obtaining the square and cubic roots by using the decimal number system.

Aryabhata had also developed using one of the two methods for creating the table of sines by using Pythagorean theorem. He also realized that second-order sine difference is proportional to sine. In Kala-kriya Aryabhata discusses about astronomy such as planetary motions, definitions of various units of time, etc. In Gola, Aryabhata has applied trigonometry to spherical geometry.

This also became the apparent basis for prediction of solar and lunar eclipse. The equation in Gola was used by Aryabhata to explain that the rotation of the Earth about its axis was the reason for westward motion of the stars.

He also referred to reflections from the Sun for luminosity of the Moon and the planets. Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao, considered the doyen of Indian Statistics, has works that have influenced various fields from economics to demography to medicine.

Born in in Karnataka, Rao had developed interest in the subject mathematics from a very early age. Evident as this is from his earlier account narrating how his father brought for him to solve a book titled 'Problems for Leelavathi' that contained questions by a mathematician for his daughter Leelavathi to solve.

He explains how his father would motivate the then eleven years old Rao to try solving five to ten problems every day. Rao had always keen interest in the subject and this is the reason why he could win for himself the Chandrasekara Iyer Scholarship for both the years at intermediate level.

Even M. A, he graduated with first class honours from Andhra University in the year However it was his year at the Indian Statistical Institute that proved to be a turning point in the life of young Roy. Here he got to publish six papers, jointly with top researcher K. Nair as well as indepently in the year Rao received gold medal and a first class M. Rao' work focussed on four areas- multivariate analysis, linear model, designs in experiments, characterisation of probability distributions- and this focus continued to be his area of specialisation for the rest of his career.

Rao under the guidance of his mentor P. Aside from the various other awards, the legendary C. Rao has been has been awarded thirty-three honorary degrees by universities in eighteen countries if the world. Chakravarthi Padmanabhan Ramanujam was a gifted Indian mathematician, known for his works on number theory and algebraic geometry.

Born in the year in Madras now Chennai , Ramanujan joined the prestigious Loyola college in Madras now Chennai for finishing intermediate and college studies after finishing his high school in the year Passionate about the subject mathematics, the young Ramanujan was appreciated well by his doctoral supervisor for in-depth knowledge of the subject. Ramanujan's personal library had books based in other languages as he was trying to teach himself other languages such as French, German, Russian and Italian to study mathematics in their original forms.

The paper provided such results that had never been proved. Ramanujam had also made significant contributions in the field of algebraic geometry, especially providing clarification on the Kodaira Vanishing Theorem.

Ramanujan had made remarkable contributions in the field of mathematics and these were well appreciated by the international community. However just like S.

Ramanujan, C. Ramanujan died very early at the young age of only Immediately after his death, a commemorative hall was named after him in the Institute of Mathematics at the University of Genoa.

Mahalanobis was an Indian Mathematician, Statistician and Scientist. He was also instrumental in shaping up of the Planning Commission of India.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was born in Kolkata in the year After completing his school education, he received his B. Sc in Physics from Presidency College, Kolkata. Later he went to Cambridge for further studies in Mathematics and Physics. Mahalanobis is best known for his Mahalanobis Distance or D2-statistic- measure of comparison between two different data sets. In simple words, it is a measurement used for studies in population distribution. For Mahalanobis, statistics was a kind of new technology that aided greatly in increasing the efficiency of human effort.

The sixty years of flood data, in Odisha, so analysed and published by him in , laid the foundation for installation of Hirakud dam on Mahanadi river, some three decades later. So great was the influence of his work that not only Statistics was soon recognised as a key discipline but also students majoring in Physics had begun to take interest in Statistics. Bose had worked directly with Albert Einstein for this project.

A certain type of particle named 'boson' or the 'God Particle' was assigned to Bose in recognition of the contributions made by Bose. Born in the year in Kolkata , Bose had always been an intelligent child excelling in education at every turn. By the years and respectively, he had finished his B.

Sc and M. Sc in Mathematics while also at the same time outperforming his other classmates. Bose enrolled himself at the University College of Science in the year for further studies.

It is during his tenure as a student there that Bose got to study theories of Statistical Mechanics by American mathematician J. Willard Gibbs and theory of relativity by Albert Einstein.

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Srinivasa Ramanujan , born December 22, , Erode , India—died April 26, , Kumbakonam , Indian mathematician whose contributions to the theory of numbers include pioneering discoveries of the properties of the partition function. At age 15 Srinivasa Ramanujan obtained a mathematics book containing thousands of theorems , which he verified and from which he developed his own ideas. Srinivasa Ramanujan is remembered for his unique mathematical brilliance, which he had largely developed by himself. This collection of thousands of theorems , many presented with only the briefest of proofs and with no material newer than , aroused his genius. In he secured a scholarship to the University of Madras but lost it the following year because he neglected all other studies in pursuit of mathematics. Ramanujan continued his work, without employment and living in the poorest circumstances.

Front Matter. Pages i-ix. PDF · Introductory Overview. Front Matter. Pages xi-xi. PDF · Mathematics in Ancient and Medieval India · Ancient Period. Front Matter.

## List of Famous Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India

Quick Info Born 22 December Erode, Tamil Nadu state, India Died 26 April Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu state, India Summary Ramanujan made substantial contributions to the analytical theory of numbers and worked on elliptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series. View two larger pictures. Biography Srinivasa Ramanujan was one of India's greatest mathematical geniuses.

*Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity numbers , structure, space and change. For example- decimal number system, concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry etc. From ancient to the Medieval India, the mathematical works were composed in Sanskrit especially consists of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated.*

#### मुख्य खबरें

It is no doubt that the world today is greatly indebted to the contributions made by Indian mathematicians. One of the most important contribution made by them was the introduction of decimal system as well as the invention of zero. Here are some the famous Indian mathematicians dating back from Indus Valley civilization and Vedas to Modern times. Aryabhata worked on the place value system using letters to signify numbers and stating qualities. He discovered the position of nine planets and stated that these planets revolve around the sun.

Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent [1] from BC [2] until the end of the 18th century. The decimal number system in use today [3] was first recorded in Indian mathematics. Ancient and medieval Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit , usually consisted of a section of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse in order to aid memorization by a student. This was followed by a second section consisting of a prose commentary sometimes multiple commentaries by different scholars that explained the problem in more detail and provided justification for the solution. In the prose section, the form and therefore its memorization was not considered so important as the ideas involved. The oldest extant mathematical document produced on the Indian subcontinent is the birch bark Bakhshali Manuscript , discovered in in the village of Bakhshali , near Peshawar modern day Pakistan and is likely from the 7th century CE. A later landmark in Indian mathematics was the development of the series expansions for trigonometric functions sine, cosine, and arc tangent by mathematicians of the Kerala school in the 15th century CE.

В нескольких метрах от нее ярко светился экран Хейла. - Со мной… все в порядке, - выдавила. Сердце ее готово было выскочить из груди.

Голос его звучал спокойно и чуточку игриво. - Откроем пачку тофу. - Нет, спасибо. - Сьюзан шумно выдохнула и повернулась к. - Я думаю, - начала она, -что я только… -но слова застряли у нее в горле.

Электронная почта соединила безопасность обычной почты со скоростью телефонной связи. С тех пор как сообщения стали передаваться по подземным волоконно-оптическим линиям, а не с помощью радиоволн, они оказались полностью защищенными от перехвата - таков по крайней мере был замысел. В действительности перехват электронных писем, передвигаемых по Интернету, был детской забавой для технических гуру из АНБ. Интернет не был создан, как считали многие, в эру домашних персональных компьютеров.

ГЛАВА 36 Ручное отключение. Сьюзан отказывалась что-либо понимать. Она была абсолютно уверена, что не вводила такой команды - во всяком случае, намеренно. Подумала, что, может быть, спутала последовательность нажатия клавиш. Немыслимо, - подумала .

*За пределами концентрических окружностей появились две тонкие линии.*

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This is a chronological list of some of the most important mathematicians in history and their major achievments, as well as some very early achievements in mathematics for which individual contributions can not be acknowledged.

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