what is intervertebral disc degeneration and what causes it pdf

What Is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration And What Causes It Pdf

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What is intervertebral disc degeneration, and what causes it?

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Adams and P. Adams , P. Roughley Published Medicine Spine.

Intervertebral disc disease is a common condition characterized by the breakdown degeneration of one or more of the discs that separate the bones of the spine vertebrae , causing pain in the back or neck and frequently in the legs and arms. The intervertebral discs provide cushioning between vertebrae and absorb pressure put on the spine. While the discs in the lower lumbar region of the spine are most often affected in intervertebral disc disease, any part of the spine can have disc degeneration. Depending on the location of the affected disc or discs, intervertebral disc disease can cause periodic or chronic pain in the back or neck. Pain is often worse when sitting, bending, twisting, or lifting objects. Degenerated discs are prone to out-pouching herniation ; the protruding disc can press against one of the spinal nerves that run from the spinal cord to the rest of the body. This pressure causes pain, weakness, and numbness in the back and legs.

Intervertebral disc disease

Degenerative disc disease is an age-related condition that happens when one or more of the discs between the vertebrae of the spinal column deteriorates or breaks down, leading to pain. Despite its name, degenerative disc disease is not a disease, but a natural occurrence that comes with aging. The rubbery discs between the vertebrae normally allow for flexing and bending of the back, like shock absorbers. In time, they become worn, and they no longer offer as much protection as before. Treatment may include occupational therapy, physical therapy , or both, special exercises, medications, losing weight, and surgery. Medical options include injecting the joints next to the damaged disc with steroids and a local anesthetic. These are called facet joint injections.

An intervertebral disc or intervertebral fibrocartilage lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. Each disc forms a fibrocartilaginous joint a symphysis , to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, to act as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together, and to function as a shock absorber for the spine. Intervertebral discs consist of an outer fibrous ring, the anulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis , which surrounds an inner gel-like center, the nucleus pulposus. Type I is concentrated toward the edge of the ring, where it provides greater strength. The stiff laminae can withstand compressive forces. The fibrous intervertebral disc contains the nucleus pulposus and this helps to distribute pressure evenly across the disc. This prevents the development of stress concentrations which could cause damage to the underlying vertebrae or to their endplates.


What is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, and What. Causes It? Michael A. Adams, PhD,* and Peter J. Roughley, PhD†. Study Design. Review and reinterpretation.


Intervertebral disc degeneration

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Adams and P. Adams , P.

Printable PDF Version. Intervertebral disk IVD disease in the dog is a common clinical disorder manifested by pain, a partial loss of limb function, paralysis, and sometimes a loss of feeling in the hind limbs. IVD disease can occur in the neck cervical area, the middle of the back thoraco—lumbar region or in the lower lumbosacral region of the back. IVD disease can also occur in other nonchondrodystrophic breeds such as the German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever and many others.

Study design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature. Objective: To suggest how intervertebral disc degeneration might be distinguished from the physiologic processes of growth, aging, healing, and adaptive remodeling. Summary of background data: The research literature concerning disc degeneration is particularly diverse, and there are no accepted definitions to guide biomedical research, or medicolegal practice. Definitions: The process of disc degeneration is an aberrant, cell-mediated response to progressive structural failure. A degenerate disc is one with structural failure combined with accelerated or advanced signs of aging.

Intervertebral disc disease

Disc degeneration in the human spine is a complex phenomenon characterised by biochemical change in the nucleus pulposus and inner annulus and the formation of clefts and fissures radiating from the central area of the disc towards the periphery. In addition, and probably independent of these phenomena, discrete defects in the outer annular attachement are seen which are likely to be due to mechanical stress and failure. The presence of stress tears in disc tissue and their failure to heal can initiate or accelerate the degeneration of the central component of the intervertebral disc. We postulate that discogenic pain may be linked to damage to the outer portion of the annulus fibrosus. Although it would seem logical to assume that discs with sustained high intradiscal pressure would be more prone to pain referred in the outer annular layers because of higher tensile strain, analysis of prospective studies has failed to confirm a relationship between typical pain reproduction at discography and high pressure values.

Disc degeneration in the human spine is a complex phenomenon characterised by biochemical change in the nucleus pulposus and inner annulus and the formation of clefts and fissures radiating from the central area of the disc towards the periphery. In addition, and probably independent of these phenomena, discrete defects in the outer annular attachement are seen which are likely to be due to mechanical stress and failure. The presence of stress tears in disc tissue and their failure to heal can initiate or accelerate the degeneration of the central component of the intervertebral disc.

Metrics details. The intervertebral disc is a cartilaginous structure that resembles articular cartilage in its biochemistry, but morphologically it is clearly different. It shows degenerative and ageing changes earlier than does any other connective tissue in the body. It is believed to be important clinically because there is an association of disc degeneration with back pain. Current treatments are predominantly conservative or, less commonly, surgical; in many cases there is no clear diagnosis and therapy is considered inadequate. New developments, such as genetic and biological approaches, may allow better diagnosis and treatments in the future. Back pain is a major public health problem in Western industrialized societies.

2 comments

Loruhama E.

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is the main clinical presentation. The primary cause of disc degeneration is tissue breakdown, primarily due to senescence, poor diet, genetic inheritance, or injury [3]. IVD degeneration is a process and is often caused by biomechanical changes within the IVD.

REPLY

Jeremy D.

Currently there is a growing interest in the study of intervertebral discs due to loss of manpower brought to society by low back and neck pains.

REPLY

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