sulphur and its compounds notes pdf

Sulphur And Its Compounds Notes Pdf

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Sulfur S , also spelled sulphur , nonmetallic chemical element belonging to the oxygen group Group 16 [VIa] of the periodic table , one of the most reactive of the elements.

Sulphur Cycle: Source: Sulphur and its compounds are required by plants and animals for synthesis of some amino acids and proteins. Sulphur Cycle.

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12.1 Sulfur

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Hey, i am looking for an online sexual partner ; Click on my boobs if you are interested. The element sulphur has been known from the earliest times, since it is widely distributed in nature and occurs in large quantities in the uncombined form, especially in the neighborhood of volcanoes. Sicily has long been famous for its sulphur mines, and smaller deposits are found in Italy, Iceland, Mexico, and especially in Louisiana, where it is mined extensively.

In combination, sulphur occurs abundantly in the form of sulphides and sulphates. In smaller amounts it is found in a great variety of minerals, and it is a constituent of many animal and vegetable substances. Extraction of sulphur.

Sulphur is prepared from the native substance, the separation of crude sulphur from the rock and earthy materials with which it is mixed being a very simple process. The ore from the mines is merely heated until the sulphur melts and drains away from the earthy impurities. The crude sulphur obtained in this way is distilled in a retort-shaped vessel made of iron, the exit tube of which opens into a cooling chamber of brickwork.

When the sulphur vapor first enters the cooling chamber it condenses as a fine crystalline powder called flowers of sulphur. Physical properties. Roll sulphur is a pale yellow, crystalline solid, without marked taste and with but a faint odor. It is insoluble in water, but is freely soluble in a few liquids, notably in carbon disulphide. Roll sulphur melts at Just above the melting point it forms a rather thin, straw-colored liquid.

On cooling the same changes take place in reverse order. Varieties of sulphur. Sulphur is known in two general forms, crystalline and amorphous. Each of these forms exists in definite modifications. Crystalline sulphur. Sulphur occurs in two crystalline forms, namely, rhombic sulphur and monoclinic sulphur.

Rhombic sulphur. When sulphur crystallizes from its solution in carbon disulphide it separates in crystals which have the same color and melting point as roll sulphur, and are rhombic in shape. Roll sulphur is made up of minute rhombic crystals. Monoclinic sulphur. When melted sulphur is allowed to cool until a part of the liquid has solidified, and the remaining liquid is then poured off, it is found that the solid sulphur remaining in the vessel has assumed the form of fine needle-shaped crystals.

These differ much in appearance from the rhombic crystals obtained by crystallizing sulphur from its solution in carbon disulphide. The needle-shaped form is called monoclinic sulphur. Above this temperature the rhombic changes into monoclinic; at lower temperatures the monoclinic changes into rhombic. Heat is set free when monoclinic sulphur changes into rhombic. Amorphous sulphur. Two varieties of amorphous sulphur can be readily obtained.

These are white sulphur and plastic sulphur. White sulphur. Flowers of sulphur, the preparation of which has been described, consists of a mixture of rhombic crystals and amorphous particles. When treated with carbon disulphide, the crystals dissolve, leaving the amorphous particles as a white residue. Plastic sulphur.

When boiling sulphur is poured into cold water it assumes a gummy, doughlike form, which is quite elastic. This can be seen in a very striking manner by distilling sulphur from a small, short-necked retort, such as is represented in Fig.

In a few days it becomes quite brittle and passes over into ordinary rhombic sulphur. Chemical properties of sulphur. When sulphur is heated to its kindling temperature in oxygen or in the air it burns with a pale blue flame, forming sulphur dioxide SO 2.

Small quantities of sulphur trioxide [Pg ] SO 3 may also be formed in the combustion of sulphur. Most metals when heated with sulphur combine directly with it, forming metallic sulphides. In some cases the action is so energetic that the mass becomes incandescent, as has been seen in the case of iron uniting with sulphur.

This property recalls the action of oxygen upon metals, and in general the metals which combine readily with oxygen are apt to combine quite readily with sulphur. Uses of sulphur. Large quantities of sulphur are used as a germicide in vineyards, also in the manufacture of gunpowder, matches, vulcanized rubber, and sulphuric acid. Hydrosulphuric acid H 2 S. This substance is a gas having the composition expressed by the formula H 2 S and is commonly called hydrogen sulphide.

It is found in the vapors issuing from volcanoes, and in solution in the so-called sulphur waters of many springs. It is formed when organic matter containing sulphur undergoes decay, just as ammonia is formed under similar circumstances from nitrogenous matter. Hydrosulphuric acid is prepared in the laboratory by treating a sulphide with an acid. Iron sulphide FeS is usually employed:. A convenient apparatus is shown in Fig. A few lumps of iron sulphide are placed in the bottle A , and dilute acid is added in small quantities at a time through the funnel tube B , the gas escaping through the tube C.

Explanation of the reaction. Iron sulphide is a salt of hydrosulphuric acid, and this reaction is therefore similar to the one which takes place when sulphuric acid acts upon a nitrate. In both cases a salt and an acid are brought together, and there is a tendency for the reaction to go on until a state of equilibrium is reached.

This equilibrium is constantly disturbed by the escape of the gaseous acid set free, so that the reaction goes on until all of the original salt has been decomposed.

The two reactions differ in that the first one is complete at ordinary temperatures, while in the case of sulphuric acid acting upon sodium nitrate, the reacting substances must be heated so as to secure a temperature at which nitric acid is a gas. Hydrosulphuric acid is a colorless gas, having a weak, disagreeable taste and an exceedingly offensive odor. It is rather sparingly soluble in water at ordinary temperatures, about three volumes dissolving in one of water.

In boiling water it is not soluble at all. In pure form it acts as a violent poison, and even when diluted largely with air produces headache, dizziness, and nausea.

It is a little heavier than air, having a density of 1. Chemical properties. The most important chemical properties of hydrosulphuric acid are the following:. Acid properties. Hydrosulphuric acid is a weak acid. In solution in water it turns blue litmus red and neutralizes bases, forming salts called sulphides.

Action on oxygen. The elements composing hydrosulphuric acid have each a strong affinity for oxygen, and are not held together very firmly. Consequently the gas burns readily in oxygen or the air, according to the equation. When there is not enough oxygen for both the sulphur and the hydrogen, the latter element combines with the oxygen and the sulphur is set free:.

Reducing action. Owing to the ease with which hydrosulphuric acid decomposes and the strong affinity of both sulphur and hydrogen for oxygen, the substance is a strong reducing agent, taking oxygen away from many substances which contain it.

Action on metals. Hydrosulphuric acid acts towards metals in a way very similar to water. Thus, when it is passed over heated iron in a tube, the reaction is represented by the equation. Water in the form of steam, under similar circumstances, acts according to the equation. Salts of hydrosulphuric acid,—sulphides.

The salts of hydrosulphuric acid, called sulphides, form an important class of salts. Many of them are found abundantly in nature, and some of them are important ores.

They will be frequently mentioned in connection with the metals. Most of the sulphides are insoluble in water, and some of them are insoluble in acids.

Consequently, when hydrosulphuric acid is passed into a solution of a salt, it often happens that a sulphide is precipitated. With copper chloride the equation is. Because of the fact that some metals are precipitated in this way as sulphides while others are not, hydrosulphuric acid is extensively used in the separation of the metals in the laboratory.

When hydrosulphuric acid and copper chloride are brought together in solution, both copper and sulphur ions are present, and these will come to an equilibrium, as represented in the equation. Since copper sulphide is almost insoluble in water, as soon as a very small quantity has formed the solution becomes supersaturated, and the excess keeps precipitating until nearly all the copper or sulphur ions have been removed from the solution.

With some other ions, such as iron, the sulphide formed does not saturate the solution, and no precipitate results. Sulphur forms two well-known compounds with oxygen: sulphur dioxide SO 2 , sometimes called sulphurous anhydride; and sulphur trioxide SO 3 , frequently called sulphuric anhydride. Sulphur dioxide SO 2. Sulphur dioxide occurs in nature in the gases issuing from volcanoes, and in solution in the water of many springs.

It is likely to be found wherever sulphur compounds are undergoing oxidation. Three general ways may be mentioned for the preparation of sulphur dioxide:.

By the combustion of sulphur.

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Sulfur is a chemical element that is represented with the chemical symbol "S" and the atomic number 16 on the periodic table. Because it is 0. Sulfur also takes on many forms, which include elemental sulfur, organo-sulfur compounds in oil and coal, H 2 S g in natural gas, and mineral sulfides and sulfates. This element is extracted by using the Frasch process discussed below , a method where superheated water and compressed air is used to draw liquid sulfur to the surface. Offshore sites, Texas, and Louisiana are the primary sites that yield extensive amounts of elemental sulfur. However, elemental sulfur can also be produced by reducing H 2 S, commonly found in oil and natural gas. Known from ancient times mentioned in the Hebrew scriptures as brimstone sulfur was classified as an element in by Lavoisier.

In an attempt to prepare sulphur IV oxide gas, dilute sulphuric acid was reacted with barium carbonate. It is more than the number of compounds formed by all other elements. Sulfur is an essential element for growth and physiological functioning of plants. However, its content strongly varies between plant species and it ranges from 0. Sulfates taken up by the roots are the major sulfur source for growth, though it has to be reduced to sulfide before it is further metabolized.


Chemical Properties of Sulphur Action of oxygen: Sulphur reacts with oxygen and burns with a blue flame. It forms sulphur dioxide which is a.


Chemistry of Sulfur (Z=16)

Sulphur is the chemical element with atomic number 16, represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. At normal conditions, sulphur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulphur is a bright yellow crystalline solid. Sulphur has been known for its medicinal value and its germicidal effect since B.

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Candidate benefit from our revision notes which are comprehensive and show how to tackle examination questions effectively. As a supplementary to coursework content our e-library for digitized multimedia CDs while enhance and ensure that you never missed that important concept during the normal class lessons. It is a Do it Yourself Project.

Sulphur and Its Compounds

Covalent Bond: The atomic number of carbon is 6.

Production -The Frasch Process

 Вы хотите сказать, что Танкадо не искал глазами Халохота. - Да, сэр. У нас все это записано на пленку, и если вы хотите… - Исчезает фильтр Х-одиннадцать! - послышался возглас техника.  - Червь преодолел уже половину пути. - Забудьте про пленку, - сказал Бринкерхофф.  - Вводите ключ и кончайте со всем. Джабба вздохнул.

Его обгоревшие останки все еще виднелись на ребрах охлаждения. Вся сцена напоминала некий извращенный вариант представления, посвященного празднику Хэллоуин. Хотя Стратмор и сожалел о смерти своего молодого сотрудника, он был уверен, что ее можно отнести к числу оправданных потерь. Фил Чатрукьян не оставил ему выбора. Когда запыхавшийся сотрудник лаборатории безопасности завопил о вирусе, Стратмор, столкнувшийся с ним на лестнице служебного помещения, попытался наставить его на путь истинный. Но Чатрукьян отказывался прислушаться к голосу разума. У нас вирус.

Все крупные провалы в сфере безопасности в истории агентства происходили внутри этого здания. В обязанности Мидж как эксперта по обеспечению внутренней безопасности входило наблюдение за всем, что творилось в стенах АНБ… в том числе и в кладовке столовой агентства. Бринкерхофф поднялся со своего места, словно стоя ему было легче защищаться, но Мидж уже выходила из его кабинета. - Руки на стол, - бросила она через плечо.  - Когда я уйду, пожалуйста, никаких глупостей. И у стен есть. Бринкерхофф опустился на стул, слушая, как стук ее каблуков затихает в конце коридора.

Итак, где ключ. Хейл попытался пошевелить руками, но понял, что накрепко связан. На лице его появилось выражение животного страха. - Отпусти .

Через несколько секунд всем стало ясно, что эта затея бессмысленна. Числа были огромными, в ряде случаев не совпадали единицы измерения. - Это все равно что вычитать апельсины из яблок, - сказал Джабба.

Подумайте. Это не лишено смысла. Джабба сразу понял, что Сьюзан права. Энсей Танкадо сделал карьеру на простых числах. Простые числа - главные строительные блоки шифровальных алгоритмов, они обладали уникальной ценностью сами по .

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