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- The Role of School Leaders’ Health Literacy for the Implementation of Health Promoting Schools
- Education in Sri Lanka
- Education in Sri Lanka
- Education in Sri Lanka
The Role of School Leaders’ Health Literacy for the Implementation of Health Promoting Schools
Background: The promotion of health literacy is seen as an urgent goal in public health and education and, hence, should be integrated in the school context as a component of the holistic health promoting school HPS approach.
However, only limited empirical studies have addressed health literacy of school staff so far. Hence, this study aimed to examine the level of health literacy among school leaders and its association with the extent of HPS implementation. Individual health literacy, attitudes, and competencies towards HPS and occupational self-efficacy served as independent variables and the level of HPS implementation was the dependent variable.
Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis as well as multiple binary logistic regression. Results: Regression analyses revealed that male gender OR: 1. Furthermore, regression analyses differentiated by gender showed that limited health literacy is associated with a low level of HPS implementation for male school leaders only OR: 2. Conclusions: The promotion of health literacy especially for male leaders would not only result in positive effects on an individual level but also could contribute to a stronger implementation of activities on school health promotion.
We suggest integrating health literacy, HPS attitudes, and competencies more strongly into the qualification and in further training of school leaders. Worldwide, schools as learning and teaching environments are recognized as appropriate venues for health promotion and prevention that reach a large proportion of young people, teachers, and nonteaching staff [ 1 ].
In addition to isolated, often topic- and target group-specific activities in the school setting, the Health Promoting School HPS approach has emerged as a holistic intervention strategy since the adoption of the Ottawa Charta on health promotion [ 2 ].
Favored by the World Health Organization WHO [ 3 , 4 ] and advocated by the Schools for Health in Europe SHE network [ 5 ], this approach moves beyond individual behavior by also aiming at whole system changes through, e.
It combines principles of health promotion to address the school structure and all individuals within the school, resulting in a wide range of activities to maintain equity and to mitigate the effects of social and health inequalities [ 1 , 6 ]. In addition, HPS is a key intervention strategy to strengthen health resources and to promote healthy lifestyles in order to reduce risk factors for noncommunicable disease in the life course [ 3 , 7 ].
Although the evidence base is still limited, available research results show that the HPS approach can have positive effects on body composition e. Compared to highly standardized i. Amongst a wide array of components, school leaders are increasingly identified as gatekeepers for the initiation and sustainability of standardized and complex interventions on school health promotion.
Next to the provision of general support personal knowledge, attitudes and competencies seem to play a crucial role in the implementation. Using data from a multiple-case study, conducted in an Austrian province, Adamowitch et al. Personal knowledge and professional experiences had an influence on the decision-making process, i. Evidence from the Norwegian Network on Health Promoting Schools suggests that a positive attitude of the school leader towards school health promotion was perceived as key for running the program at schools and for sustaining it over time [ 20 , 21 ].
With regard to prior evidence, it is surprising that there is neither standardized training nor any defined regulations for specific competencies on HPS implementation of school leaders in Germany.
In addition to the abovementioned school leader-oriented influencing factors, the importance of general health-related competencies has been increasingly discussed in public health research in recent years. Today, the research field offers a plethora of health literacy definitions and models, covering a wide array of concepts from narrow functional health literacy through comprehensive, generic health literacy to disease-specific health literacy and topic-related health literacy [ 23 , 24 ].
This and previous studies showed that health literacy follows a social gradient, i. With regard to gender differences on health literacy, findings are mixed. While representative German surveys did not report any gender differences [ 27 , 28 ], there are also study findings indicating gender disparities on both functional health literacy [ 29 ] and generic health literacy [ 30 ]. Regarding health outcomes, research findings demonstrate that limited functional health literacy is associated with harmful and risky health behaviour in adolescence e.
Research on functional health literacy of adults associated limited levels with more hospitalizations, greater use of emergency care, limited use of early diagnosis and screening, reduced ability to interpret health messages, a poorer overall health status [ 32 ], and higher mortality rates in adulthood [ 33 ].
In view of this and against the background of its educational links e. In contrast to a separate intervention strategy, it is argued that the promotion of health literacy should be seen as a component of the holistic HPS approach and should be developed from within the schools and the educational system [ 7 , 38 , 39 ].
To achieve this, teachers and nonteaching staff need to be trained to be able to integrate health literacy in the educational core mission and the overall HPS strategy of schools. However, despite the high importance, empirical studies on health literacy of teachers are sparse. An Australian study showed that, when teachers applied health education techniques and content beyond the transfer of factual health knowledge e.
However, the few studies available so far relate to the professional group of teachers while no findings are available on the health literacy of school leaders. This is surprising given the fact that this group is of high importance for the entire school and the quality of its teaching and learning conditions, processes, and results [ 45 , 46 ].
Moreover, as indicated above, slowly emerging evidence demonstrates that school principals and managers are gatekeepers for the initiation and sustainable anchoring of activities on school health promotion [ 47 ]. Against this background, the present study aims to explore the health literacy of school leaders and its association with the level of HPS implementation. In most studies mentioned above, school leaders have been regarded as a homogeneous group, i.
Since primary schools are more oriented towards the holistic development of the child, it would be reasonable to assume that primary school leaders support activities on school health promotion more strongly, resulting in higher HPS implementation. In this context, the results of a German study showed that primary school leaders indicated the highest and that secondary school leaders indicated the lowest need for support in the area of school health promotion [ 48 ].
Moreover, it can be assumed that the professional role of school leaders is associated with the implementation status of HPS. Since school principals are required to teach to a lesser extent than other members of the school leadership team e. However, as available empirical studies on health literacy and HPS implementation have not differentiated between different leadership positions and failed to consider differences between the type of school, both aspects should be considered as covariate.
What sociodemographic and work-related characteristics are associated with health literacy of school leaders? What is the relationship between health literacy of school leaders and the level of HPS implementation taking into account sociodemographic characteristics and other school leader-oriented factors HPS related attitudes, competencies, and self-efficacy?
This cross-sectional study was part of a larger survey which aimed to investigate the work and health situation of German school leaders and to examine their role in the implementation of school health promotion. The study was carried out for the first time as an online survey in the German federal state North Rhine-Westphalia from late to early To ensure comparability, a core questionnaire was used in each study, which was supplemented by additional scales and items.
This paper refers to the data of the latest study conducted in the federal state of Hesse from October to December , which for the first time examined the health literacy of school leaders. The target group was school principals and members of the school management boards e. The study protocol was approved by the Hesse Ministry of Education.
All eligible participants were invited by email and newsletter, including two reminders by the Hesse association of school principals. Participation was voluntary, and anonymity was assured. Upon entering the survey site, participants were presented with information regarding the aims and the background of the study. After checking a consent box at the bottom of the page, participants were directed to the questionnaire.
The 16 items were based on Rasch modelling, and item selection was based on content validity. No sum score was calculated for respondents with more than two missing values. Based on the sum score, three levels of health literacy are suggested: inadequate health literacy 0 to 8 points , problematic health literacy 9 to 12 points , and sufficient health literacy 13 to 16 points.
These cut-off values are adapted from the four health literacy levels of the long version and have been used in a number of studies [ 28 , 51 ]. For all analyses, inadequate and problematic health literacy were combined to the category limited health literacy.
Based on the existing evidence on the association of school principals on HPS implementation, we included attitudes, competencies, and self-efficacy as independent variables. Adapted from a study on workplace health promotion, personal attitudes towards HPS were measured with six items [ 52 ]. These included the perceived importance of the respondents to promote the health of pupils and teachers or the perceived importance of health for the work and learning ability, e.
HPS related competencies were operationalized with three items adapted from Wilde et al. Finally, to capture subjective beliefs to successfully fulfil a certain task or to cope with demands and problems, we used the occupational self-efficacy scale by Abele et al. In contrast to general self-efficacy, the scale is domain specific and refers to the subjective abilities to successfully fulfil job-related tasks.
It comprises six items that could be rated on a five-level response scale ranging from 1 not true to 5 completely true with higher values indicating higher levels of occupational self-efficacy, e. The implementation level of the HPS served as dependent variable in this study.
Level of HPS implementation was operationalized using an 8-item scale by Harazd et al. In order to capture different facets of the holistic HPS approach, the existing scale was extended by 6 self-formulated items.
Based on their feedback, slight changes in the formulations were made. First, we analysed the data descriptively i. Second, all potential sociodemographic and work characteristics were cross tabulated with the two levels of health literacy limited vs. Moreover, Pearson correlation two-tailed for all independent and dependent variables were conducted.
This form of regression analysis was chosen because there are no predefined cut-off values for the dependent variable resulting in an empirical artificial division of low versus high HPS implementation using median-split. All independent variables were included block-wise. Block 1 covered sociodemographic and work characteristics, while block 2 in addition to the variables of block 1 included HPS attitudes, competencies, and self-efficacy.
Block 3 included health literacy in addition to the variables of the previous blocks. Again, chi square tests were used for testing the significance of the different models. The majority were female Moreover, almost half of respondents were from primary schools Based on the calculation of the health literacy levels, more than two thirds of all respondents Table 2 shows health literacy levels i. Health literacy levels of school principals stratified by sociodemographic and work characteristics.
With regard to gender, chi square tests revealed a significant difference with a higher percentage of limited health literacy found for male compared to female leaders While no differences in health literacy could be identified between school principals and members of the management board e.
However, differences among age groups and type of school did not prove to be significant. A summary of the means M , standard deviations SD , and Pearson correlations of all explanatory variables and the dependent variable is shown in Table 3.
With regard to sociodemographic and work characteristics block 1 , only gender and professional role were significantly associated with the implementation status of the HPS see Table 4. Compared to female respondents, we observed a 1.
Moreover, not belonging to the group of school principals member of the school management team, e. For block 2, attitudes and competencies showed significant associations with the implementation status, i. Finally, added in block 3, we found significant associations between the level of health literacy and the implementation status of the HPS. Compared to respondents with sufficient health literacy, school leaders with limited health literacy had a 1.
Based on the identified gender differences in the level of health literacy and the gender-related associations with the HPS implementation status Table 3 and Table 4 , we calculated multiple binary logistic regressions stratified by gender. Subsequent significance tests of the difference between significant regression coefficients in women and men were tested two-tailed using the z-two-proportion-test. As shown in Table 5 , membership of the school management board e.
Education in Sri Lanka
Background: The promotion of health literacy is seen as an urgent goal in public health and education and, hence, should be integrated in the school context as a component of the holistic health promoting school HPS approach. However, only limited empirical studies have addressed health literacy of school staff so far. Hence, this study aimed to examine the level of health literacy among school leaders and its association with the extent of HPS implementation. Individual health literacy, attitudes, and competencies towards HPS and occupational self-efficacy served as independent variables and the level of HPS implementation was the dependent variable. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis as well as multiple binary logistic regression. Results: Regression analyses revealed that male gender OR: 1.
ewiseattle.org instructional leadership roles in developing good practices in the the Sri Lankan school principals focused on the traditional.
Education in Sri Lanka
Education in Sri Lanka has a long history that dates back two millennia. While the Constitution of Sri Lanka does not provide free education as a fundamental right, the constitution mentions that 'the complete eradication of illiteracy and the assurance to all persons of the right to universal and equal access to education at all levels" in its section on directive principles of state policy at 27 2 H. Sri Lanka's population had an adult literacy rate of
Education in Sri Lanka
The professional capacity of managers has always been a crucial factor in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of any organization. Status of the post This is a senior leadership post, which carries with it membership of the Educational Leadership Team of the whole school. Accordingly, Quatoshi et al. Assists in designing capacity development programs for teachers Part II. Like other organizations, educational organizations would exhibit individual behavior, collective actions and interactions which define their norms and values.
Teacher education TE TE or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge , attitudes , behaviors , and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom , school , and wider community. The professionals who engage in training the prospective teachers are called teacher educators or, in some contexts, teacher trainers. There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe these activities.
Она раскусила эту тактику разделяй и властвуй, тактику отставного морского пехотинца. Солги и столкни лбами своих врагов. - Это чистая правда! - кричал. - Мы должны позвать людей на помощь. Нам обоим грозит опасность. Сьюзан не верила ни единому его слову. Хейл подтянул ноги и немного приподнялся на корточках, желая переменить позу.
Role of the Zonal Officers in an environment where School Sri Lanka principal service personnel, by qualification Training manual for principals on SBM.
Убийство. - Да. Убийство азиата сегодня утром. В парке. Это было убийство - Ermordung. - Беккеру нравилось это немецкое слово, означающее убийство.
Звук выстрела продолжал звучать у нее в голове. Горячий пар пробивался через люк подобно вулканическим газам, предшествующим извержению. Проклиная себя за то, что не забрала у Стратмора беретту, она пыталась вспомнить, где осталось оружие - у него или же в Третьем узле. Когда глаза Сьюзан немного привыкли к темноте, она посмотрела на дыру, зияющую в стеклянной стене. Свечение мониторов было очень слабым, но она все же разглядела вдали Хейла, лежащего без движения там, где она его оставила.
Да неужели. Ты сам его и убил. Я все. - Довольно, Грег, - тихо сказал Стратмор. Хейл крепче обхватил Сьюзан и шепнул ей на ухо: - Стратмор столкнул его вниз, клянусь .
Собрав все силы, Хейл, сильнее обхватив Сьюзан за талию, начал пятясь подниматься по лестнице. Она пыталась цепляться каблуками за ступеньки, чтобы помешать ему, но все было бесполезно. Он был гораздо сильнее, и ему легче было бы подталкивать ее вверх, тем более что площадка подсвечивалась мерцанием мониторов в кабинете Стратмора. Но если она окажется впереди, он подставит Стратмору спину.
Есть какие-нибудь сведения о номере? - выпалил он, прежде чем телефонистка успела сказать алло. - Пока ничего, сэр. Кажется, придется повозиться дольше, чем ожидалось, - это был звонок с мобильника.
Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни. - Порядок, - усмехнулся. Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого. У всех терминалов были совершенно одинаковые клавиатуры.