Gender And Stereotype In Dictionaries Pdf
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The international human rights law framework prohibits gender stereotypes and stereotyping which undermine the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. States have obligation to eliminate discrimination against women and men in all areas of their lives.
- A study of sex-role stereotyping in the Oxford English Dictionary 2E
- Gender stereotypes are reflected in the distributional structure of 25 languages
- Gender Stereotype
A study of sex-role stereotyping in the Oxford English Dictionary 2E
Our analysis of thousands of movies and books reveals how these cultural products weave stereotypical gender roles into morality tales and perpetuate gender inequality through storytelling. Using the word embedding techniques, we reveal the constructed emotional dependency of female characters on male characters in stories. Our analysis covers a substantial portion of narratives that shape the modern collective memory, including 7, books, 6, movie synopses, and 1, movie scripts. Our analysis of the words surrounding female and male characters shows that the lives of males are adventure-oriented, whereas the lives of females are romantic-relationship oriented. Finally, we demonstrate the social endorsement of gender stereotypes by showing that gender-stereotypical movies are voted more frequently and rated higher. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Gender-fair language GFL aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms policeman with gender-unmarked forms police officer , whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible i. By integrating research on 1 language structures, 2 language policies, and 3 individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making. An almost universal and fundamental asymmetry lies in the use of masculine generics. In English, for example, generic he can be used when gender is irrelevant e.
Gender stereotypes are reflected in the distributional structure of 25 languages
A gender stereotype is a predetermined set of attitudes and behaviors that is believed to be typical of all men or women. Stereotypes about gender assume that there are in fact only two genders: male and female. They also assume that all men and women are heterosexual and that gender is determined by or related to a person's sexuality. Gender and gender stereotypes are connected to a sense of identity as something intrinsic to oneself , sexual practice the actions one takes on the basis of that identity , and sexual desire the gender to which one is attracted whether or not that attraction is acted on. In light of the prevalence of the nuclear family in most Western societies, the roles of the father and the mother are also key determinants of gender identity because the child stereotypically identifies with one parent and sees the other as a model for a future partner.
These are one-sided and exaggerated images of men and women which are deployed repeatedly in everyday life. They are found Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Please subscribe or login to access full text content.
Add stereotype to one of your lists below, or create a new one. Hitting it off and befriending people Words for making friends. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English.
These are applied to the OED database as a whole and to sub-files of gender-related definition or quotation text. The corpus is also studied manually. Software-based strategies including text searches for collocations with gender-specific pronouns and possessive adjectives produce interesting results which are tested against information in previous research. Stereotypes are found most frequently in quotation text, to a lesser degree in definition text. She is interested in French women writers of the 16th and 17th centuries, and is working with collaborators on an edition of the works of Marie de Gournay. Download to read the full article text.
In social psychology , a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people. The type of expectation can vary; it can be, for example, an expectation about the group's personality, preferences, appearance or ability. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information, but can sometimes be accurate. While such generalizations about groups of people may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals and are among the reasons for prejudice attitudes. An explicit stereotype refers to stereotypes that one is aware that one holds, and is aware that one is using to judge people. If person A is making judgments about a particular person B from a group G , and person A has an explicit stereotype for group G , their decision bias can be partially mitigated using conscious control; however, attempts to offset bias due to conscious awareness of a stereotype often fail at being truly impartial, due to either underestimating or overestimating the amount of bias being created by the stereotype.