Pituitary Gland Anatomy And Physiology Pdf Ebook
File Name: pituitary gland anatomy and physiology ebook.zip
The Pituitary, Fourth Edition, continues the tradition of a cogent blend of basic science and clinical medicine which has been the successful hallmark of prior editions.
The anterior pituitary secretes seven hormones that regulate several physiological processes, including stress, growth, and reproduction.
Sturkie's Avian Physiology
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Pituitary hormones are secreted in a pulsatile manner, reflecting stimulation by an array of specific hypothalamic releasing factors.
Each of these pituitary hormones elicits specific responses in peripheral target tissues. The hormonal products of those peripheral glands, in turn, exert feedback control at the level of the hypothalamus and pituitary to modulate pituitary function Fig. Pituitary tumors cause characteristic hormone excess syndromes. Hormone deficiency may be inherited or acquired. Fortunately, there are efficacious treatments for many pituitary hormone excess and deficiency syndromes.
Nonetheless, these diagnoses are often elusive; this emphasizes the importance of recognizing subtle clinical manifestations and performing the correct laboratory diagnostic tests.
For discussion of disorders of the posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis, see Chap. Diagram of pituitary axes. Hypothalamic hormones regulate anterior pituitary trophic hormones that in turn determine target gland secretion. Peripheral hormones feed back to regulate hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. For abbreviations, see text. The bony sella is contiguous to vascular and neurologic structures, including the cavernous sinuses, cranial nerves, and optic chiasm.
Thus, expanding intrasellar pathologic processes may have significant central mass effects in addition to their endocrinologic impact. Hypothalamic neural cells synthesize specific releasing and inhibiting hormones that are secreted directly into the portal vessels of the pituitary stalk.
Blood supply of the pituitary gland comes from the superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries Fig. The hypothalamic-pituitary portal plexus provides the major blood source for the anterior pituitary, allowing reliable transmission of hypothalamic peptide pulses without significant systemic dilution; consequently, pituitary cells are exposed to releasing or inhibiting factors and in turn release their hormones as discrete pulses into the systemic circulation Fig.
Diagram of hypothalamic-pituitary vasculature. The hypothalamic nuclei produce hormones that traverse the portal system and impinge on anterior pituitary cells to regulate pituitary hormone secretion. Posterior pituitary hormones are derived from direct neural extensions. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH pulses induce secretory pulses of luteinizing hormone LH. This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over.
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Previous Chapter. Next Chapter. Larry Jameson. Anterior Pituitary: Physiology of Pituitary Hormones. Dennis Kasper, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e. McGraw-Hill; Accessed March 15, Anterior pituitary: physiology of pituitary hormones. Download citation file: RIS Zotero. Reference Manager. Search Textbook Autosuggest Results. Sign In. Username Error: Please enter User Name. Password Error: Please enter Password. Forgot Password?
Sturkie's Avian Physiology is the classic comprehensive single volume on the physiology of domestic as well as wild birds. The Sixth Edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and features several new chapters with entirely new content on such topics as migration, genomics and epigenetics. Chapters throughout have been greatly expanded due to the many recent advances in the field. The text also covers the physiology of flight, reproduction in both male and female birds, and the immunophysiology of birds. The Sixth Edition, like the earlier editions, is a must for anyone interested in comparative physiology, poultry science, veterinary medicine, and related fields.
The hypothalamus is a small but important area of the brain formed by various nucleus and nervous fibers. Through its neuronal connections, it is involved in many complex functions of the organism such as vegetative system control, homeostasis of the organism, thermoregulation, and also in adjusting the emotional behavior. It also modulates the endocrine system through its connections with the pituitary gland. Precise anatomical description along with a correct characterization of the component structures is essential for understanding its functions. Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases. At the end of the fourth week of embryological development, the neural tube is organized in primary vesicles: the forebrain vesicle or prosencephalon, the midbrain vesicle or mesencephalon, and the hindbrain vesicle, also called rhombencephalon. Prosencephalon further divides into two secondary vesicles, the telencephalon that will form the cerebral hemispheres and the diencephalon which gives rise to the diencephalon.
Anatomy and Function of the Hypothalamus
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Identify the 3 families of anterior pituitary hormones and their main structural differences. Understand the mechanisms that regulate anterior pituitary hormone production and describe the actions of tropic hormones on target organs. Diagram the short-loop and long-loop negative feedback control of anterior pituitary hormone secretion.
Endocrine Surgery in Children pp Cite as. The pituitary gland protrudes from the base of the brain and is encased by the sphenoid bone.