Thinking And Intelligence In Psychology Pdf
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- Intelligence: Definition, Theories and Testing
- Human intelligence
- Theories of Intelligence in Psychology
Intelligence: Definition, Theories and Testing
Psychologists have long debated how to best conceptualize and measure intelligence Sternberg, These questions include how many types of intelligence there are, the role of nature versus nurture in intelligence, how intelligence is represented in the brain, and the meaning of group differences in intelligence. In the early s, the French psychologist Alfred Binet — and his colleague Henri Simon — began working in Paris to develop a measure that would differentiate students who were expected to be better learners from students who were expected to be slower learners. The goal was to help teachers better educate these two groups of students. Binet and Simon developed what most psychologists today regard as the first intelligence test, which consisted of a wide variety of questions that included the ability to name objects, define words, draw pictures, complete sentences, compare items, and construct sentences. And it turned out that the correlations among these different types of measures were in fact all positive; students who got one item correct were more likely to also get other items correct, even though the questions themselves were very different.
While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology , there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence. Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability. Others believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents. Intelligence has been a controversial topic throughout psychology's history. Despite the substantial interest in the subject, there is still considerable disagreement about what components makeup intelligence. In addition to questions of exactly how to define intelligence, the debate continues today about whether accurate measurements are even possible. At various points throughout recent history, researchers have proposed some different definitions of intelligence.
Much of the excitement among investigators in the field of intelligence derives from their attempts to determine exactly what intelligence is. Different investigators have emphasized different aspects of intelligence in their definitions. Thorndike differed over the definition of intelligence, Terman stressing the ability to think abstractly and Thorndike emphasizing learning and the ability to give good responses to questions. More recently, however, psychologists have generally agreed that adaptation to the environment is the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does. Such adaptation may occur in a variety of settings: a student in school learns the material he needs to know in order to do well in a course; a physician treating a patient with unfamiliar symptoms learns about the underlying disease; or an artist reworks a painting to convey a more coherent impression.
Theories of Intelligence in Psychology
How does a person who has never seen or touched snow in real life develop an understanding of the concept of snow? How do young children acquire the ability to learn language with no formal instruction? Psychologists who study thinking explore questions like these. Cognitive psychologists also study intelligence. What is intelligence, and how does it vary from person to person?
Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic , understanding , self-awareness , learning , emotional knowledge , reasoning , planning , creativity , critical thinking , and problem-solving. More generally, it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information , and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context.
Intelligence testing has evolved over time as researchers continually seek the best method for measuring intelligence. Researchers continually seek ways to measure intelligence more accurately. Because it was easy to administer, the Binet-Simon scale was adopted for use in many other countries. These practices eventually made their way to the United States, where psychologist Lewis Terman of Stanford University adapted them for American use. So if a five year-old child achieved at the same level as an average eight year-old, he or she would have a mental age of eight. Thus, a five year-old child who achieved at the same level as his five year-old peers would score a
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