Iron And Steel Making Process Pdf
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- How Is It Made? An Infographic of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process
- Steel Production
Iron is most widely found in the crust of the earth, in the form of various minerals oxides, hydrated ores, carbonates, sulphides, silicates and so on.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The U. In , this constituted In addition, the United States imports about 25 million tons of steel each year.
How Is It Made? An Infographic of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process
Humans have been making iron and steel for centuries. Steel fuelled the industrial revolution and remains the backbone of modern industrialized economies. This article briefly explains how iron and steel are made. Separate articles discuss how the material is converted into steel construction products and the basic material properties of steel that are used in design. As early as 6, years ago, early civilizations used iron ore found in meteorites to construct primitive tools. The first iron furnaces appeared in about BC.
The process of turning raw product into finished stainless steel is a lengthy one, but it can be simplified into six steps. To create pure steel, the products that go into it- lime, coke and iron ore- must be made into iron. These are all put into a blast furnace and melted down to create what is called molten iron or hot metal. The iron still has many impurities at this point, and they will have to be removed to ensure the metal is not brittle.
The improved plant performance gives rise to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation. The control systems and field instruments are working at the various processes of the iron and steel plant. The process of iron and steel plant is starting from Sinter plant, Coke oven etc, and the blast furnace, iron pre-treatment are following. Under such circumstances efficient operation is achieved by such measures as increasing the calorie value of fuel gas and recovering waste heat from gas. To further improve combustion efficiency and save energy, measurement of the oxygen concentration in exhaust gases is required.
In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen , silicon , phosphorus , sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese , nickel , chromium , carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities termed "inclusions" in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel. Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the s and s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry.
Steel production is a hour-a-day, day-a-year process, dependent on a consistent supply of raw materials and huge amounts of energy. High demand for iron ore, coke and scrap steel, increasing energy costs, and industry consolidation have prompted steel producers to develop new methods for gaining efficiency to remain competitive. The production methods using raw materials have improved significantly over the past decade, and scrap-based production is accounting for a larger portion of the total steel supply. Steel is made primarily in a two-step process. Secondary steelmaking is a refining process in which alloying metals are added and impurities are removed.
Skip to content. All Homes Search Contact. At high temperatures, oxygen is blown through the metal, which reduces the carbon content to between This is a brief history of iron and steel production from its earliest origins through the 20th century, with a special focus on the career of Andrew Carnegie and on the economic impact of cheap and abundant steel. The industry produced 29 million metric tons of pig iron and 88 million tons of steel.
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