advantages and disadvantages of antibiotics pdf

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Antibiotics Pdf

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Therapy with antimicrobial combinations has been used as long as antimicrobials have been available. Well established indications for combination antimicrobial therapy include: a empirical treatment of life-threatening infections; b treatment of polymicrobial infections; c prevention of the emergence of bacterial resistance; and d for synergism. Disadvantages of combination therapy include: a increased expense; b increased risk of adverse effects; c antagonism; and d superinfection.

Antibiotic

Doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. Most of the side effects associated with antibiotics are not life-threatening.

In some cases, however, antibiotics can cause severe side effects, such as anaphylaxis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , adverse reactions to antibiotics are responsible for 1 in 5 medication-related emergency room visits.

Call and immediately stop taking antibiotics if side effects are severe or interfere with breathing. People take antibiotics to clear bacterial infections. However, antibiotics may cause adverse side effects in some people.

Anyone experiencing severe or persistent symptoms should stop taking the antibiotics and talk with a doctor. To decrease the risk of developing digestive issues, be sure to read the instructions that come with the medication. Antibiotics are designed to kill harmful bacteria. However, they sometimes kill the good bacteria that protect people from fungal infections. People taking antibiotics or who have taken them and think they may have a fungal infection should talk with their doctor as soon as possible.

People should always tell a doctor or pharmacist about all medications they are taking to help avoid interactions. The pamphlet in the package should also list any drugs that might interact with that specific type of antibiotic. Anyone who experiences extreme sensitivity to the sun while taking antibiotics should talk to a doctor.

Some estimates suggest that 3 to 6 percent of the people who take tetracycline develop stains on their teeth enamel. The staining is irreversible in adults because their teeth do not regrow or change. Staining can also appear on some bones. However, bones are continuously remodeling themselves, so bone stains caused by antibiotics are typically reversible.

Talk to a doctor about switching medications if taking antibiotics causes tooth discoloration or staining. In rare cases, antibiotics can cause an extremely severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis generally develops within 15 minutes of taking an antibiotic, but anaphylaxis can occur up to an hour or more after a dose. Anaphylaxis can be fatal without immediate emergency care. If people suspect anaphylaxis, they should dial the emergency services or go to the emergency room right away.

Clostridium difficile , or C. C-difficile -induced colitis is challenging to treat because the bacterium is resistant to most antibiotics available. Anyone who has any concerns about developing an antimicrobial-resistant infection when taking antibiotics should talk to a doctor. Some infections caused by an antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria do not respond to any available antibiotics. The kidneys are responsible for removing toxins, including medications, from the blood and body through urine.

Antibiotics can overburden and damage the kidneys in people with kidney conditions. As people age, their kidneys also naturally become less effective.

Doctors will often prescribe older people or people with kidney conditions lower doses of antibiotics to begin with. Anyone who has a severe reaction of any kind to antibiotics should immediately stop taking the medications and seek medical attention. A doctor can usually prescribe a different type of antibiotic if someone is sensitive or allergic to one kind. We will update it regularly as the pandemic continues. An upper respiratory infection is an illness that affects the nose and throat, causing symptoms such as sneezing and coughing.

Learn more about upper…. Taking statins with alcohol has no direct risks, but people should be cautious as alcohol may increase the side effects and complications of statins…. What are the side effects of antibiotics? Medically reviewed by Alan Carter, Pharm. Common side effects Rare and more severe side effects When to see a doctor Takeaway Doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat bacterial infections.

Common side effects of antibiotics. Share on Pinterest Serious side effects of antibiotics are rare. Share on Pinterest People should use sun protection when taking antibiotics that can cause photosensitive skin.

Rare and more severe side effects. Share on Pinterest Do not take antibiotics for cold or flu symptoms. When to see a doctor. We picked linked items based on the quality of products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will work best for you. We partner with some of the companies that sell these products, which means Healthline UK and our partners may receive a portion of revenues if you make a purchase using a link s above. People with dementia may be prescribed interacting drugs.

Quitting smoking may improve mental well-being. Related Coverage. What are the signs of an upper respiratory infection? Can you take statins and drink alcohol? Medically reviewed by Femi Aremu, PharmD.

Advantages and Limitations of Bacteriophages for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections

Bacteriophages BPs are viruses that can infect and kill bacteria without any negative effect on human or animal cells. For this reason, it is supposed that they can be used, alone or in combination with antibiotics, to treat bacterial infections. In this narrative review, the advantages and limitations of BPs for use in humans will be discussed. Literature review showed that the rapid rise of multi-drug-resistant bacteria worldwide coupled with a decline in the development and production of novel antibacterial agents have led scientists to consider BPs for treatment of bacterial infection. Use of BPs to overcome the problem of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is attractive, and some research data seem to indicate that it might be a rational measure. However, present knowledge seems insufficient to allow the use of BPs for this purpose.

Tracy D. Wilkins, Ph. Appleman, Ph. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?

Combination Antimicrobial Therapy for Bacterial Infections

Dangerous, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past several decades. In this review the factors that have been linked to this phenomenon are addressed. Profiles of bacterial species that are deemed to be particularly concerning at the present time are illustrated.

Antibiotics are powerful drugs that help our bodies ward off diseases caused by bacteria. When used appropriately, they quickly and effectively eliminate infections, causing us to feel better in a matter of days. However, when used to treat other health conditions, antibiotics are not only ineffective but can be harmful to our overall health. According to a growing body of research , the more we take antibiotics to cure bacterial infections, the more our bodies build resistance, which wipes out their effectiveness in making us well. Antibiotics fight bacteria that cause strep throat and ear , sinus and urinary infections.

Antibiotics are medicines that fight infections caused by bacteria in humans and animals by either killing the bacteria or making it difficult for the bacteria to grow and multiply. Bacteria are germs. They live in the environment and all over the inside and outside of our bodies. Most bacteria are harmless and even helpful to people, but some can cause infections, like strep throat.

The Pros and Cons of Antibiotics

Antibiotic Treatment in the Hospital

An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections , and antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity.

The antibiotics are the extremely powerful class of drugs which reduced mortality from many of the epidemic infectious diseases which are responsible for millions of deaths every year, They are known as the antibacterials, They can destroy or slow down the bacterial growth on the body and they can treat or combat the bacterial infection in the body. The antibiotics are the substances that are obtained from the bacteria and the fungi, They are used as drugs to fight the various diseases caused by the harmful microorganisms, They are used to treat many diseases that were fatal prior to the development of the antibiotics and a few antibiotics are used to treat certain cancers. The antibiotics. The antibiotics are effective against the infections caused by the microorganisms, Some of the antibiotics are effective against many forms of diseases, They can save the life, They can kill the bacteria within the body, They are used as drugs to combat various diseases which are caused by the harmful microorganisms.

Before you browse our site, please accept our cookies policy Accept. What about from the regular flu? But antibiotics can save your life if you have an infection like strep throat, MRSA or a wound. Antibiotics are used for STDs, whooping cough, acne and staph infections. Antibiotics are one of the most overused and inappropriately used drugs.


Pros of taking antibiotics · Antibiotics can slow the growth of and kill many types of infection. · In some cases, such as before surgery, antibiotics.


Doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. Most of the side effects associated with antibiotics are not life-threatening. In some cases, however, antibiotics can cause severe side effects, such as anaphylaxis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , adverse reactions to antibiotics are responsible for 1 in 5 medication-related emergency room visits.

3 comments

Carine L.

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Byron P.

PDF | The advantages of antibiotics have been most clearly seen in those acute bacterial infections which had a high mortality before the.

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Lori V.

Request PDF | Advantages and Disadvantages in the Use of Antibiotics or Phages as Therapeutic Agents | Since their discovery, phages have been employed.

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